Authors: Scalais E, Osterheld E, Geron C, Pierron C, Chafai R, Schlesser V, Borde P, Regal L, Laeremans H, van Gassen KLI, van den Heuvel LB, De Meirleir L
Intracellular cobalamin metabolism (ICM) defects can be present as autosomal recessive or X-linked disorders. Parenteral hydroxocobalamin (P-OHCbl) is the mainstay of therapy, but the optimal dose has not been determined. Despite early treatment, long-term complications may develop. We have analyzed the biochemical and clinical responses in five patients with early onset of different types of ICM defects (cblC: patients 1-3; cblA: patient 4; cblX: patient 5) following daily P-OHCbl dose intensification (DI). In patient 4, P-OHCbl was started at age 10 years and in patient 5 at age 5 years. OHCbl was formulated at either, 5, 25, or 50 mg/mL. P-OHCbl was intravenously or subcutaneously (SQ) delivered, subsequently by placement of a SQ injection port except in patient 4. In all patients, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels, demonstrated an excellent response to various P-OHCbl doses. After age 36 months, patients 1-3 had a close to normal neurological examination with lower range developmental quotient. In patient 3, moderate visual impairment was present. Patient 4, at age 10 years, had normal renal, visual and cognitive function. In cblX patient 5, epilepsy was better controlled. In conclusion, P-OHCbl-DI caused an excellent control of metabolites in all patients. In the three cblC patients, comparison with patients, usually harboring identical genotype and similar metabolic profile, was suggestive of a positive effect, in favor of clinical efficacy. With P-OHCbl-DI, CblA patient has been placed into a lower risk to develop renal and optic impairment. In cblX patient, lower P-OHCbl doses were administrated to improve tolerability.